During the cutting process of the fiber laser cutting machine, the beam is focused into a small focal point by the lens of the cutting head, so that the focal point can achieve high power density. At this time, the heat input by the beam far exceeds the part of the heat reflected, conducted or diffused by the material, and the material is quickly heated to the melting and vaporizing temperature. At the same time, a high-velocity air stream blows the melted and vaporized material out of the coaxial or non-coaxial side, forming holes. With the relative movement of the focus and the material, the hole forms a continuous slit with a narrow width to complete the cutting of the material.
The fiber laser cutting machine replaces the traditional mechanical knife with an invisible beam, and has the characteristics of high precision, fast cutting, automatic typesetting to save materials, smooth incision, and low processing cost. It will gradually improve or replace the traditional metal cutting process equipment. So, what materials can the fiber laser cutting machine cut?
Carbon Steel: Carbon steel contains carbon, which does not reflect light strongly and absorbs light well. Therefore, carbon steel is the most suitable for laser cutting and the best effect among all metal materials. Modern fiber laser cutting machines can cut carbon steel sheets with a maximum thickness of up to 90MM. The kerf for cutting carbon steel by the oxidation melting cutting mechanism can be controlled within a satisfactory width range, and the kerf for thin plates can be as narrow as about 0.1MM.
Stainless Steel: Fiber laser cutting machine is an effective processing method for stainless steel sheet-based manufacturing. Under the condition of strictly controlling the heat input of laser cutting, the width of the heat-affected zone of the cutting edge can be limited, thus ensuring the good corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Moreover, nitrogen gas is generally used for cutting stainless steel sheet metal, which can prevent oxidation, has no burr edges, and can be directly welded with almost no post-processing. According to the characteristics of stainless steel material, the fluidity of the liquid can be accelerated, so that the cutting efficiency is higher and faster.
Alloy Steels: Most alloy structural steels and alloy tool steels can be laser cut with good edge quality. When oxygen is used as the process gas, the cut edges are slightly oxidized. For sheet thicknesses up to 4mm, high pressure cutting can be performed with nitrogen as the process gas. In this case, the cut edge will not be oxidized. For high-strength steels, straight, slag-free trims can be obtained as long as the process parameters are properly controlled. However, for high-speed tool steel and hot forging die steel, corrosion and slag sticking are prone to occur during laser cutting.
Aluminum and its Alloys: For laser cutting of aluminum and its alloys, auxiliary gas is mainly used to blow molten products from the cutting area to obtain better incision quality. For some aluminum alloys, attention should be paid to preventing the generation of micro-cracks on the surface of the cutting seam during the cutting process. When oxygen is used, the cutting surface is rough and hard; when nitrogen is used, the cutting surface is smooth. Pure aluminum is very difficult to cut and can only be cut if a “reflection absorber” device is installed on the system, otherwise reflections can destroy optical components.
Copper and its Alloys: Copper has too high reflectivity to be basically cut with a fiber laser beam. High laser power should be used to cut brass, and air or oxygen should be used as the auxiliary gas, which can cut thinner sheets. Brass with a thickness of less than 1mm can be cut with nitrogen gas; copper with a thickness of less than 2mm can be cut, and the processing gas must be oxygen. Pure copper and brass can only be cut if a “reflection absorber” device is installed on the system, otherwise reflections will destroy optical components.
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