Laser cutting technology is a comprehensive high-tech technology, it crossed optics, material science and engineering, mechanical manufacturing, numerical control technology and electronic technology and other disciplines, belongs to the current domestic and foreign science and technology and industry common concern of the hot spot. For more than 50 years, laser processing technology and application of rapid development, has been combined with a number of disciplines to form a number of technical application fields, and the main processing technology of laser including: laser cutting, laser welding, laser cleaning, laser cladding etc.
Laser cutting technology is the main application of laser technology in industry. It accelerates the transformation of traditional processing industry and provides new means of modern industrial processing. It has become the laser processing method used in the current industrial processing field. At present, laser cutting technology has been widely used in the pillar industries of the national economy such as machinery manufacturing, bridge construction, sheet metal processing, ship and automobile manufacturing, electrical and electronic industries, aviation and aerospace. With the continuous progress of science and technology and should be used, laser cutting technology will be further to other fields.
Laser cutting is the use of focused high power density laser beam to illuminate the workpiece, over the threshold of laser power density, laser beam energy and reactive gas all the additional auxiliary cutting process of chemical reaction heat absorbed by the material and the resulting laser point temperature rise sharply, after boiling material began to boil, and form a hole, with the relative motion of the beam and artifacts, make the material form the kerf width, kerf width the sediment is blown away by a certain auxiliary gas.
Metal laser cutting has been widely used in modern industry due to its wide cutting range, high cutting speed, narrow cutting seam, good cutting quality, small heat-affected zone, and large additive flexibility. Laser cutting technology has also become laser processing technology. One of the most mature technologies. Compared with other light, laser has the following characteristics: high brightness, high directivity, high monochromaticity, and high coherence. It is precisely because of the four major characteristics of laser that it has been widely used, which brings the following valuable features to laser processing that are not available in traditional processing:
(1) Non-contact processing, laser beam energy and moving speed are adjustable, which can achieve a variety of processing;
(2) It can be used to process a variety of metals, especially materials with high hardness, high brittleness and high melting point;
(3) There is no “tool” wear and no “cutting force” applied to the workpiece during laser processing;
(4) The workpiece processed by laser has small thermal affected zone, small thermal deformation and small subsequent processing amount;
(5) Laser can be used to process the workpiece in a closed container through transparent medium;
(6) The laser is easy to guide. Through focusing, various directions can be changed, and it is very easy to cooperate with the numerical control system to process complex workpieces. Therefore, laser cutting is an extremely flexible cutting processing method;
(7) Laser processing has high production efficiency, stable and reliable processing quality, and significant economic and social benefits.
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